May 21 President Suharto of Indonesia is forced from power, and replaced by his vice-president, Dr B J Habibie.
June 9 President Habibie states (to Reuters) that he will consider offering special status to East Timor.
June 15 An estimated 15,000 students demonstrate in Dili, calling for referendum, and release of Xanana Gusmão.
June 18 Foreign Minister offers new proposals to Portugal.
June 27 Clash between pro-independence and pro-integrationist supporters in Dili.
August 5 New round of UN-sponsored talks between Indonesia and Portugal.
August 12 Maj Gen Damiri and Col Tono Suratman meet with Joao Tavares, Eurico Guterres and Cancio de Carvalho, and tell them they must organise ‘to protect integration.’
August 21 Xanana rejects autonomy proposal.
September 10 Bishops Belo and Nascimento hold two days of talks at Dare on issues of independence and autonomy.
October 6 Governor Abilio Soares demands that all government employees, who oppose integration, resign immediately.
October 11 Rally of 30,000 in Dili calls for Governor’s resignation.
October 12 Thousands protest in Baucau against TNI.
November 1 TNI troops carry out a series of raids on villages in Manufahi district.
November 4 Several hundred Kopassus troops reportedly arrive in Kupang for deployment in East Timor.
November 20 UN Secretary General expresses concern over violence in E Timor. Lisbon suspends talks.
December 27 TNI troops, with Gada Paksi, arrest and allegedly torture four civilians, and destroy several homes in Maubara district.
January 3 Mahidi Militia kill and injure independence supporters in Ainaro.
January 24-25 Mahidi, with TNI involvement, kill 4 in Zumalai.
January 27 It is announced in Jakarta that Habibie will ask the MPR to approve independence if a special vote for autonomy is rejected.
February 7 Portuguese and Indonesian foreign ministers meet in New York to draft plan for East Timor.
February 8 Bishop Belo and Jose Ramos Horta declare that East Timor should become independent, after a period of Autonomy.
February 15 BMP group and local TNI attack Guiso village in Maubara district and arrest several persons.
February 16 According to South China Post report Lt. Col. Yayat Sudradjat, head of Kopassus Intelligence unit (SGI) convenes a meeting of militia leaders and calls for Killing of pro-independence leaders and their families.
February 17 Joao Tavares reportedly tells meeting of sub-district and Village heads in Bobonaro that they will be sacked if they fail to mobilise their citizens to attend pro-government rally in Balibo.
February 19 Tavares tells Balibo rally that there will be war if people reject the autonomy proposal.
February 22 General Wiranto states in Jakarta that TNI will continue to deploy the militia to help Polri maintain security.
February 24 Two Timorese shot dead in Dili, apparently not by militia, but by TNI troops in civilian clothes.
February 25 Portuguese Prime Minister calls for UN presence in East Timor. Australian Foreign Minister meets with Habibie in Jakarta.
March 4 A classified Australian Defence Intelligence Organisation report concludes that TNI ‘are clearly protecting, and some instances operating with, militants’. It notes that TNI ‘could apprehend or easily control pro-Indonesian militants, but has chosen not to.’
March 8 More than 1,000 Timorese from Guiso village are reported to have fled into mountains after militia attacks.
In New York it is announced that Jakarta and Lisbon have agreed
to give Timorese a vote on their future.
March 16 BMP militia surround the Carmelite convent in Maubara, accuse the nuns of supporting independence movement, and threaten to kill them.
March 26 According to one of those present, at a meeting with militia leaders, Governor Abilio Soares orders that priests and nuns should be killed.
April 6 At Liquiça as many as 50 Timorese located in the church compound are murdered by BMP militia, with TNI involvement. Gusmão calls on Falintil forces to defend themselves. General Wiranto tells media that the massacre was the result of conflict between ‘rival groups’.
April 12 At Cailaco in Bobonaro area, six villagers are kidnapped and then murdered by Halilintar and TNI troops in house of Manuel Soares Gama. A Falintil group retaliates, killing Gama and 2 TNI troops.
April 13 In revenge attack a force of TNI and militia, led by Lt Col. Burhanuddin Siagian and Joao Tavares reportedly kidnap, torture and then kill six Cailaco villagers.
April 16 Belarmino de Cruz, a brother of Lopez, is reportedly killed at Laclubar.
April 17 Massacre at home of Manuel Carrascalão. Manuelito, Manuel’s son, and at least 11 others are killed by Aitarak and BMP members, following a militia rally, addressed by Colonel Tono Suratman.
Team Alpha militia murder Virgilio de Sousa, an independence supporter, at this home in Bauro, Lospalos.
April 20 Jose Ramos Horta calls for international sanctions against Indonesia. General Wiranto visits Dili, and claims security situation is under control.
April 21 Evaristo Lopes believed dead after being arrested by Kopassus and Team Alpha militia in Los Palo.
Falintil and militia leaders sign peace agreement at Bishop’s residence in Dili, which envisages setting up of a Joint Commission on Peace and Stability.
April 23 Catholic Church reports that between 42 and 100 persons killed by militia units in Suai.
According to Australian Defence Intelligence Organisation report General Wiranto had chosen to ignore the violent behaviour of TNI and militia forces in Timor.
April 24 After two days of talks Portuguese and Indonesian officials reach broad agreement on autonomy package and referendum, but security arrangements are yet to be resolved.
April 26 Commission on Peace and Stability for East Timor created with representatives from pro-integration, pro-independence, local government, military, police, Church and KOMNASHAM.
April 27 At meeting with Australian Prime Minister Howard, Dr Habibie promises to hold a self-determination ballot under UN supervision on 8 August.
April 28 Suratman promises that pro-integration militias would be disarmed in coming weeks.
April 30 Report that bodies of 11 pro-integrationists found in Bauhati.
May 1 Sakunar militia, led by Simão Lopes, established in Oecussi.
Megawati Soekarnoputri announces that East Timor referendum will be cancelled if her party (PDI-P) wins forthcoming election.
May 3 Kopassus troops and militia members reportedly kill Domingos Soares Aparicio near Viqueque.
May 4 Mateus Soares Monis, of Sagadate, Baucau, is arrested and killed by Kopassus troops.
Agreement between Indonesia, Portugal, and the UN on a referendum
for East Timor is signed in New York.
It provides for international experts to help set up and supervise the ballot, and for unarmed police to observe the process. Responsibility for security, however, rests with ABRI forces.
May 7 The UN Security Council passes Resolution 136, in support of 5 May Agreement, and moves quickly to commence its implementation.
May 9 Maj. Gen. Damiri tells media that disarmament of militia and pro-independence forces was ‘proceeding smoothly’ and that security situation was now under control.
May 18 More than 30 Timorese reported killed by militia in Atara.
May 23 President Habibie promises to release Xanana after ballot.
May 24 The SYSG urges the Security Council to send a team of military advisers to East Timor, as Indonesian authorities was not maintaining security there. After 3 day visit, Special Envoy Soragjee tells Habibie that all East Timorese must be disarmed.
Timbul Silaen, Kapolri, tells media that his police were neutral and ‘had done as best as possible to prevent violence.’
May 27 The Security Council expresses its deep concern at the continuing violence in East Timor.
May 28 The Peace and Justice Commission reports that militia were compiling lists of pro-independence leaders, with the assistance of intelligence agencies, so that they could be targeted if the consultation result were to go against the autonomy proposal.
June 1 Megawati makes brief visit to East Timor.
The 70-member UNAMET mission commences its work in East Timor.
June 5 Lamberto da Costa and another person reported killed after arrest by joint TNI/BMP members. 11 others reported killed.
June 6 BMP militia force 23 women into domestic and sexual slavery in Maubara, Liquiça [KPP HAM Report]
June 7 Indonesian parliamentary elections held.
June 8 The UN begins its consultation campaign.
Eduardo Pereira, 50, is killed at Liquiça, reportedly by 4 BMP members who accused him of supporting Falintil.
The Security Council passes Resolution 1246, formally
The Australian Foreign Ministry announces that it has information that the TNI has actively encouraged and supported the pro-integration militia.
June 15 UNAMET staff unexpectedly witness BMP militia destroying Leotela village, and beating locals, with TNI watching.
June 23 The UN, citing unsatisfactory security conditions, postpones referendum to 22 August. General Wiranto records his disagreement with the postponement.
June 26 Bishop attends peace talks in Jakarta. Jose Ramos Horta and Xanana allowed to attend.
June 29 Seven UN officials injured in Maliana in attack by pro-autonomy mob. The UN Security Council President subsequently expresses his grave concern at attack. SYSG report states that security situation in East Timor not yet conducive to holding of ballot.
July 4 A UN driver is shot during militia attack on UNAMET staff and aid workers in Liquiça and Maliana.
July 7 Indonesia sends extra 1,200 police to East Timor, in response to international concern at security problems.
July 8 UNAMET staff in Maliana witness 60-80 militia being given military training, reportedly organised by local TNI nco.
July 10 Falintil proclaims cease-fire.
July 12 A delegation of ministers, including General Wiranto, meets with Ian Martin and Francesc Vendrell.
July 14 Wiranto declares that there was no cause to deploy UN troops in East Timor, which would in any case violate the May 5 Agreement.
July 16 Voter registration begins, with one militiaman killed during a clash.
August 4 Voter registration ends, with 438,000 registered.
August 7 Delegation of Indonesian ministers, led by Alatas, meet with UN officials in Dili.
August 8 Pro-independence and pro-integration leaders sign code of conduct agreement, as a commitment to referendum. General Wiranto declares that surrendering of weapons is prerequisite to peaceful implementation of the ballot.
August 11 Two Timorese killed in Viqueque, and two others wounded in attack by 59/75 Junior Militia on a poll information centre. SYSG calls for more Indonesian police to be deployed in Timor, and for more international police monitors.
August 12 Wiranto issues assurance that military will ensure security during post-ballot period, and will accept outcome of the ballot.
August 13 Colonel Suratman is replaced by Colonel Noer Muis.
August 16 Three Timorese are reportedly killed in Maliana by militia.
August 22 Noer Muis warns of bloodshed before and after the announcement of the results of the ballot. Admitted to mounting tensions in Suai.
August 25 Noer Muis says that security forces would face a big problem if pro-independence won, and it would incite reaction of their opponents. But ‘possibility of war and violence would be very small if pro-integration faction won’.
August 26 Eurico Guterres tells rally of 15,000 in Dili that East Timor will become a sea of fire if independence is declared. After the rally two Timorese are killed by Aitarak militia in a brawl, witnessed by Indonesian police who failed to intervene.
August 27 The UN Security Council passes Resolution 1262, extending UNAMET’s mandate.
August 28 In Los Palos village chief Verissimo Quintas is killed by militia, who accused him of supporting CNRT.
Militia force journalists and UN staff out of Maliana where two locals are then killed.
Kapolri Silaen declares that his forces are adequate for security.
Alatas rejects need for peacekeeping force in East Timor.
August 29 CNRT offices in Dili, Ambeno and Los Palos are destroyed by militia.
A senior UN field officer reports that TNI troops have stockpiled 400 M-16 rifles in Maliana, and that local commander (Lt Col Siagian) is planning to carry attacks with militia on those who vote for independence.
The consultation ballot is held in East Timor, with more than 97%
of registered voters participating
Polling station at Gleno attacked by more than 50 militia.
August 31 Militia attacks in Dili, Gleno, Ermera, Aileu, Ambeno and Maliana leave 11 killed, including 3 UN local staff.
United Front for East Timor Autonomy accuses UNAMET of bias and describes consultation as ‘garbage’.
Alatas praises the referendum.
September 1 Thousands of Indonesians and pro-integrationist Timorese start fleeing to West Timor.
September 2 UN Special Envoy Jamsheed Marker endorses Indonesian management of security in East Timor. Portuguese, however, ask Security Council to prepare contingency plans for peacekeeping force.
September 3 UNAMET staff in Maliana evacuate to Dili after militia attacks.
General Wiranto announces that in order ‘to face unexpected circumstances’ two battalions of troops had been dispatched to East Timor. He said that ‘he had just heard that the situation in Timor had returned to normal’.
September 4 The results of the plebiscite are officially announced at the Mahkota Hotel, with 78.5% voting against autonomy option.
Within an hour of the announcement militia, many in TNI uniforms but with Aitarak cloaks, pour into Dili, and destruction of the city begins. An early target is the Mahkota Hotel.
In Maliana Halilintar and Dadurus Merah Putih militias, in tandem with TNI troops, begin a campaign of destruction, and kill several locals including two UNAMET staff.
September 5 A violent operation is launched throughout East Timor, apparently launched by the TNI with code-names Wiradharma and Guntur. 25 refugees in the Camara Ecclesiastica killed by Aitarak militia.
US Civpol offer wounded in militia attack near Liquiça.
September 6 Killings and destruction at Bishop Belo’s house. Refugees forcibly evicted, several believed murdered.
Refugees also forcibly removed from ICR compound.
Suai massacre at Ave Maria Church. More than 200 persons seeking refuge are brutally killed by Mahidin and Laksaur militia, with TNI and Brimog support. Colonel Sediono and Lieutenant Sugito played leading roles in the attack and the disposal of bodies. Several woman who survived the attack were later taken to local military (Kodim) headquarters and raped.
President Habibie imposes martial law in East Timor, and places Major General. Kiki Syahnakri in charge.
September 7 Many East Timorese university students, returning to Dili from Java, are reported to have been killed, and some of the women raped.
Bishop Belo is evacuated from Dili to Darwin. Xanana is released from house arrest and taken to British Embassy in Jakarta.
September 8 Maliana Police Station massacre. More than 50 persons are killed by Dadurus Merah Putih militia at Maliana Police Station, with TNI backing.
13 Timorese killed at Tumin and Kiobiselo in Oecussi in militia attack, with TNI involvement.
Killings reported in other parts of East Timor.
Military and militia activities in Dili reflect close cooperation, by under TNI command.
Indonesian Commission on Human Rights condemns the violence, noting complicity of security forces.
Massive operation to force East Timorese to go to West Timor on commandeered or military vehicles gets under way, accompanied by massive systematic destruction.
September 9 As many as 14 persons killed near Batugade by militia and TNI ncos.
UN decides to evacuate all its staff to Darwin.
US suspends military ties to Indonesia.
Indonesian MPR accepts results of ballot.
September 10 Massacre at Passabe, Oecussi, by Sakunar militia, assisted by troops from 745 Battalion.
Reverend Ximenes is killed on road from Dili to Baucau.
UN Secretary General calls on Indonesia immediately to accept peacekeeping force.
US President Clinton say that ‘it is now clear that the Indonesian military is aiding and abetting the militia violence. This is unacceptable.’
September 11 A German priest, Albert Garim, and a Timorese are killed at Dare, allegedly by Kopassus troops.
UN Security Council delegation, with General Wiranto, visits Dili.
September 12 Killings reported at Ainaro, Los Palos and Baucau by militia and TNI.
Indonesian Government formally agrees to peacekeeping force intervention.
September 13 Indonesia allows international food and airdrops in East Timor.
September 14 Two Timorese killed at Raifun village.
UNAMET staff and 1,400 Timorese evacuated from Dili to Darwin.
The EU bans arms sales to Indonesia.
September 15 UN Security Council Resolution 1264 approves Interfet deployment.
September 16 Maj Gen Syahnakri denies TNI support for militias.
September 17 TNI withdraw from East Timor begins, and UN aerial food drop commences.
September 19 Interfet commander, Maj.Gen. Peter Cosgrove, meets with Maj Gen Syahnakri in Dili.
September 20 Seven Timorese killed by Sakunar militia in Ambeno, Oecussi.
Interfet commences deployment in Dili, without incident.
September 21 As Battalion 745 withdraws to West Timor, its soldiers reportedly kill Timorese and destroy houses. Financial Times journalist, Sanders Thoenes is murdered by 745 troops in the Becora area.
The Indonesian human rights agency, KOMNASHAM sets up a commission to investigate violations in East Timor.
September 23 Militia groups start flooding into West Timor, and TNI troops begin burning their barracks and other buildings.
September 24 UNHCR reaches an agreement to aid refugees in West Timor.
September 25 Massacre in Lautem area when Team Alpha militia ambush vehicle carrying nuns, brothers and an Indonesian journalist. Nine person are killed and their bodies mutilated.
September 27 The UN CHR calls for an international commission to investigate violations in East Timor.
September 29 Militia reportedly kill two persons in Maliana.
October 3 Interfet troops push towards the western part of East Timor.
October 6 Bishop Belo returns to East Timor.
October 8 East Timorese refugees start returning from West Timor.
October 9 One militiaman is killed and two wounded when engaged by Interfet troops near border.
October 13 UN officials report that about 400,000 East Timorese are missing.
October 20 Indonesia’s MPR passes a decree, annulling the formal incorporation of East Timor, which took place in July 1976.
October 25 The UN Security Council, in Resolution 1272, creates UNTAET.
October 26 East Timor is taken over by the UN and Sergio Vieira de Mello is appointed as transitional administrator.
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